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China-farming
minority in China
 
China A--Z
 
 
A
There are many international carriers flying between Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong to the capital city or the metropolis of your country. Please
check it at your local travel agency.

International departure requires check-in at least 2 hours prior to departure.
Airport Tax
Airport Tax for domestic flights is 50 yuan, for international flights is 90 yuan. It’s included in your air ticket.
Ancient Chinese architecture has a long history and great achievements, and created many architectural miracles such as the Great Wall, the
Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven and so on. In the process of its development, superior architectural techniques and artistic design were
combined to make unique Chinese architecture be one of the three greatest architectural systems.

Ancient Chinese architecture features unique timber framework, the top load of a structure will be transferred to its foundations through its posts,
beams, lintels and joists. And color is the main ornament used on the ancient Chinese architecture. The painting will give the structure a clear-cut
and a magnificent image, it is unique that such sharp color can achieve artistic effects.

 
 
B
Baggage
Economic class tickets for domestic flights only permit 20 kilos ( 44 pounds) of free baggage allowance per person.
Business Hours
Most shops are usually open at 9:00am-9:30am and close at 8:30pm-9:30pm. Offices are close for one hour as a lunch break at noon. Supper
is around 6:00pm or 7:00pm.
 
 
C
Clothing
In spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November) you may need a linen jacket or woolen sweater as over-light clothing. In summer
(June to August) cool cotton garments are recommended. In winter (December to February) a light cotton-patted coat will keep you warm enough
in the south; but in the north a heavy woolen coat or down parka is a must. Late spring and late summer are often rainy, especially in the southern
part of China, so it would be wise to bring some wet weather gear with you. And of course, good walking shoes are essential at any time of the
year.
Climate
Weather conditions and temperatures in China vary considerably which provide endless year-round variety for visitors, from ice festivals in the
north to tropical beach resorts in the south.
While China is a year-round destination, the months of May, September, and October are ideal months for traveling anywhere in the country. In the
north, the winters are cold, and summers warm, with moist monsoon air streams making it hot (80% of China's rainfall occurs between late May
and early October).
Customs
All visitors entering China must fill out customs declaration forms upon arrival. Reasonable amounts of money (currently up to USD$5,000),
alcohol and cigarettes. Certain valuable items, such as camera equipment, computers, and gold, must be declared on the form.
Notes: Tourists may bring 8mm, 1/2 inch VHS, or small-format digital video camcorders by declaring the equipment upon entry, provided that the
tapes produced in China are not intended for commercial use. But professional audio/video recording equipment requires special authorization.
Importing arms and ammunition, culture, or ethics is forbidden.
Chinese Medical

With a history of 5,000 years, China was one of first countries to have a medical culture. In comparison with Western medicine, the Chinese
method takes a far different approach.

The Physiology of Chinese medicine holds that the human body's life is the result of the balance of yin and yang. Yin is the inner and negative
principles, and yang, outer and positive. The key reason why there is sickness is because the two aspects lose their harmony.

Chinese doctors could cure countless patients without any assistant apparatus but only a physical examination. The four methods of diagnosis
consist of observation, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, pulse taking and palpation.
 
 
D
Drinking Water
Tap water is not drinkable. Complimentary bottled water may be offered in some hotels.
 
 
E
Electricity
The electrical current in China is 220 volts. China uses both a 2 and 3-pin power outlets. For your convenience, it is recommended that you bring
your own adapters. Some hotels do provide adapters. But to be safe, bring your own.
 
 
F
Festival
China has very ancient history, so it’s festivals are numerous. It is definitely a window through which Chinese culture can be seen vividly and
thoroughly. They can be divided into four major categories: Traditional Festivals are a reflection of the Chinese traditional practices and morality of
the people; Public Festivals are those designated as such by the Chinese government to commemorate some special events; Ethnic Minority
Festivals are unique to the Chinese minority ethnic groups; and the tourism festivals are associated with renowned Chinese scenic spots.
 
 
H
Hotel
Accommodation in China ranges from (3 star) Tourist Class to (5 star) Deluxe hotels. Hotel rooms are modern, well equipped and have private
facilities, television, IDD dial telephones and mini bars. Hotel facilities include restaurants - serving both Western and Chinese meals, coffee
shops, swimming pools, gyms, shopping arcades, business centers, post offices and banks. Rooms have twin beds rather than a double bed,
where triple share accommodation consists of twin beds (2 single beds) plus a rollaway/fold-up bed.
 
 
L
Language
Chinese is commonly used in China. It is one of five working languages designated by the United Nations and has been used for over 6,000
years.
 
 
M
Meals
Breakfast - American Buffet style ( 3-5 stars Hotel ), Chinese style breakfast in the very small city of the silk road tour or Tibet tour.
Lunch / Dinner - will consist of between 6-8 dishes with meat, vegetable, soup, rice etc, plus one glass of beer or soft drink supplied with plenty
of Chinese Tea. We try to bring out the many diverse taste buds and culinary delights of China with many local cuisines. Occasionally, we like to
spoil you with various Banquets - Peking Duck, Dumpling Banquet, Hot Pot Dinner. If you require special meals due to religious or medical
limitations, it may be difficult at times to pre-arrange due to menu inflexibility. Please advise your tour guide well in advance to see if we can
assist.
Medical
Chinese hospitals in major cities are of an excellent standard. Doctors are trained in Western medicine and are generally very experienced. If
you have any medications you must take ensure you have an adequate supply to cover the whole trip. Please seek advice from your General
Practitioner about inoculations and other health information relevant for China.
Money / Currency / Credit Cards and ATMs / Traveller's Cheques
China's currency is the Renminbi (RMB), usually called the "Yuan". 1Yuan = 10Jiao (in 1, 2 & 5) = 100 Fen (in 1, 2 & 5). In China, foreign
exchange is under the control of the Bank of China, so all the hotels have foreign exchange, which offers similar rate to the Banks. Hong Kong's
currency is the Hong Kong dollar, whilst Macau's is the Pataca.


Visa, Master Card, American Express, Diners Club, Federal Card and JCB credit cards are accepted at most hotels and state-run shops in the
major cities. Travelers should be prepared to pay in Yuan when shopping in smaller shops, restaurants, and in smaller hotels.
ATMs that accept foreign cards are few and far between. Do not rely on them as a way of obtaining cash in Mainland China.


The Bank of China has exchange desks for foreign currency and traveller's cheques with convenient hours at all hotels, airports, friendship
stores, and other shopping areas. Besides the advantage of safety, traveler's cheques are useful to carry in China because the exchange rate is
actually more favourable than what you get for cash. Cheques from most of the world's leading banks and issuing agencies are now acceptable
in China - however, stick to the major companies such as Thomas Cook, American Express, and Citibank.
Mountain Ranges

China is world-known for its abundance of mountains. Its mountain ranges can be divided into five basic categories according to the directions
in which they run:

1) West-to-east mountain ranges, including the Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan mountain system, the Kunlun-Qinling-Dabie mountain system, and
the Nanling mountain systems;

2) North-to-south mountain ranges, including the Helan, Liupan, and Hengduan mountain ranges;

3) Northeast-to-southwest mountain ranges, including the Changbai, Greater Hinggan, Taihang, and Wushan ranges;

4) Northwest-to –southeast mountain ranges, including the Altay, Qilian and Gangdise ranges;

5) Arc-shaped mountain ranges, including the Himalayas and Taiwan Mountains
 
 
N
Newspapers, Books, Periodicals
English newspapers and magazines such as The China Daily are available for free in many hotels. Foreigners can also buy books and maps in
foreign-language bookstores or Xinhua Book Stores.

Nationality

China is made up of 56 ethnic groups. The Han people make up 91.02 percent of the total population, and the other 55 national minorities 8.98
percent.

They are Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uygur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Bouyi, Korean, Manchu, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, She,
Gaoshan, Lahu, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Jingpo, Kirgiz, Tu, Daur, Mulam, Qiang, Blang, Salar, Maonan, Gelo, Xibe, Achang, Pumi, Tajik, Nu, Ozbek,
Russian, Ewenki, Benglong, Bonan, Yugur, Jing, Tatar, Drung, Oroqen, Hezhen, Moinba, Lhoba and Gelo.
All nationalities enjoy equal status according to the Constitution. The State protects their lawful rights and interests and promotes equality, unity
and mutual help among all nationalities.

In order to ensure that the 56 Chinese ethnic groups live together in harmony, the Chinese government introduced a series of policies including
ones to secure the equality and unity of ethnic groups, give regional autonomy to ethnic minorities and promote respect for the faith and customs
of ethnic groups.
 
 
P
Postal Service
Postal services are available at the front desks of hotels and post offices. To use standard envelopes, ensure that you write the postal code, and
be sure to use enough stamps. International courier services are also available in most post offices and express mail agencies. Many stores can
send items to almost anywhere in the world.
 
 
S
Safety
China is considered one of the safest countries in the world to travel. Crime is very low throughout China, and there are virtually no crimes
committed against tourists visiting China. Even during the late evening hours, travellers have little to be concerned about. The Chinese are friendly
and hospitable, and Chinese law is quite strict.

Seasoned travellers recommend taking a few simple precautions to avoid potential problems. When in particularly crowded areas and while
traveling through airports, train, or bus stations, keep an eye on your baggage. Pickpockets and petty thefts are usually the only problems to be on
guard against. All Chinese hotels provide an in-room safe or locked security boxes at the front desk.
 
 
T
Telephones
0086 - IDD code of Mainland China     00852-Hongkong      00853-Macao      00886-Taiwan
110 - Police
119 - Fire
120 - Emergency
114 - Directory enquiries and information
12117 - Time
12121 - Weather
Time Zone
Time is the same throughout China. Beijing time = GMT + 8 hours ( GMT: Greenwich Mean Time )
Tipping
Nowadays, tipping is very popular in China although the Government does not encourage it. We suggest USD 5-7/per person per day as tips for
all the tour leaders, national & local guides, and coach drivers; USD2/each time for Hotel bellboys, as a gratitude for their service. For the small
group with only 2-5 people, we suggest USD20/group.day for the guide and USD10/group.day for the driver.

It is not customary to leave tips at local restaurant. Normally, you do not need to tip at hotel restaurants, as the bill includes 15% service charge.
Television and Radio Broadcast
Most hotels in the big city have satellite transmitted English, German, French, Japanese programmes. The China Central Television (CCTV)
Station transmits English news and other TV programs. There are many local radio broadcasting stations transmit English programs.
Traffic

Chinese railway services boast domestic and international operations.
The sleeping carriages running on China's railways are partitioned into compartments each containing four cushioned berths arranged in upper
and lower berths. It is called "the soft sleeper". Six berths to an open compartment, is called “the hard sleeper”. For the short distance, you can
take the “soft seat” or the “hard seat”.

Taxis are a convenient means of transportation in various cities in China, with fares ranging from 1 to 2 yuan per km. Simply raise your hand,
and a taxi appears in no time. But you'd better choose a taxi with a business permit, and before you disembark from a taxi ride, ask the driver for a
receipt.
Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have subways going through the downtown areas. A subway ticket costs between 3 and 5 yuan.

In many tourist cities such as Beijing, bicycles are for rent in hotels. People can also look around in Beijing for a man powered three-wheeled
vehicle called a 'trishaw'.
Train


Chinese railway services boast domestic and international operations.
With Beijing as its hub, the railway links all the provincial capitals providing a network that serves all parts of China. There are sixteen trunk lines
crisscrossing the country.
The Trans-Siberian Railway connects China to Russia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. Other international train services include Beijing to Pyongyang,
Beijing to Hanoi, and Urumqi to Alma Ata.

Almost all the Chinese cities have their own railway stations, some have more than one, like Beijing, where there are five train stations, these
stations provide passenger related facilities and services such as a dining hall, coffee house, shops, phone booths and newsstands.

Passenger trains are numbered by numerals with the capital Chinese phonetic letters in front. Different letters imply different trains:

Z - Through Train
T - High-speed Train
K - Express Train
N - Fast Train
L - Passenger Extra (Temporary Train)
Y - Tourist Train

CRH: China Railway High-speed
CRH(China Railway High-speed) trains, the newest member of China Railway family, was put into service to meet the 6th “Nationwide Railway
Speed-up” in April.

With a maximum speed of 250 km per hour, the modern design of the CRH train gives it an imposing appearance. The trains were more
comfortable than traditional trains, with wider aisles and more spacious and handicapped-accessible bathrooms. And with the vehicle's body
mainly in white, the CRH still looks slimmer than traditional trains.

CRH (China Railway High-speed) trains is travel at a record high speed of over 200 kilometers per hour, bringing travel times between Beijing
and other major cities of Shanghai, Wuhan, Shenyang, Changchun, Harbin and Qingdao shortened by at least two to several hours. However,
CRH will operate only on short and medium-distance lines, and the ticket prices for such CRH trains are twice as much as that of normal trains. 


In China, the accommodations on the train are divided into four categories: soft-sleeper, hard-sleeper, soft-seat and hard-seat.

Soft-sleeper – private compartments in the soft sleeper carriages which are fitted out to a higher standard. Each compartment has four bunks,
two upper and two lower.

Hard-sleeper – less comfortable than the soft-sleeper. The open compartment comprise six bunks, fixed as an upper, middle and lower on either
side.

Soft-seat – a nice, comfortable cushioned seat, but not all trains have the soft-seat carriages.

Hard-seat – the seating is not upholstered and the carriage tend to be not very clean. It is always noisy and crowded with people especially
during peak times or the high travel season on the most popular railway routes.

The China Ministry of Railways stipulates that the weight of hand luggage you carry onto the train is limited to a maximum of 20 kilograms (44
pounds); other baggage can be checked onto the train and the related formalities should be transacted at the railway station before your
departure.

Please be aware that each carriage has only two washrooms, one at one end of the carriage, but without shower or tub; meals and drinks can be
purchased in the dining car.

Actually, train tickets are difficult to buy in China, especially during the high travel season or at the start and finish of national holidays. It is often
more convenient to obtain your tickets through a travel agent.

 
Toilets
Charged toilets can be found in the streets and tourist places in large and medium-sized cities; use of such a toilet costs 0.50 or 1.00 yuan per
person. Washrooms in some big cities, airports and large shopping centers are free of charge.
 
 
V
Visas
Visas for individual travel to China are quite easy to get. You may apply directly to the Embassy of the People's Republic of China or one of
several Chinese Consulates in your country.
 
 
W
Water
Tap water is not drinkable.


 
 


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